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Timescale of Turkey - chronology


1071 Battle in Malazgirt. Victory about the Byzantine emperor of the Seljuk Arp Arslan.
Beginning of the islamization of Anatolia.
13th Cent. climax of the Rumseljuq sultanate

Ottoman empire

1326 Death of Osman Gazi, founder of the Ottoman empire
1453 capture of Constantinople
1516 Conquest of Syria and Egypt (takeover of the caliphate ...)
1529 Siege of Vienna
1683 Defeat with the 2nd siege of Vienna
1839 Editkt of Gülhane. Reform time, beginning of the Tanzimats
1876 Announcement of a constitution according to Midhat Pasas
1877 Election of the first Ottoman parliament (1878 the parliament was dissolved again)

Dolmabace Palast in Istanbul

Dolmabace palace in Istanbul

1908 New Turkish revolution and beginning of the second constitutional period
1911 Italian-Turkish war
1912 1st Balkan war - Albania is relieved
1913 2nd Balkan war
1914 War entry of Turkey alongside the Central Powers
1915 Beginning of the Armenian deportation
1918 Armistice from Mudros (30.10.),
Kemal Pascha receives supreme command on the army group Yildrim from Liman von Sanders
1919 Greeks are landing in Izmir, Atatürk intervenes in Anatolia, congresses of Erzurum and Sivas
1920 Istanbul is taken by the English (16.3.), big Turkish national assembly in Ankara on 23.4., Paris menace with the entire subdivision of Turkey (10th August). Turkish-Armenian peace treaty of Gümrü
1921 Victory of Turkish troops over the Greeks in Iönü (10.1.), people as a bearer of the sovereignty
1922 Izmir are relieved by the Turkish army (9.9.). Armistice between Greece and Turkey on 11.10. in Mudanya. Abolition of the sultanate by the National Assembly on 01.11.The successor to the throne named Abdülmecid is chosen to caliph on 18.11.
1923 Peace of Lausanne, definition of the borders of Turkey, guarantee of minority rights for Armenians, Greeks and Jews (24.7.) Ankara becomes capital city on 13.10.

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The first republic of Turkey

1923 Mustafa Kemal becomes president of Turkey (29.10.), at the same time proclamation of the republic (cumhuriyet)
1924 Abolition of the caliphate and expulsion of the dynasty of Osman (03.03.), adoption of resolutions about the first Turkish national constitution by the big national assembly (20th of April). Abolition of the “Scheriat courts” (1st of May)
1925 Ban of traditional headgears and Kurdish uprising
1926 Introduction of the civil code according to the model of Switzerland (4.10.) The criminal law is leant in the Italian criminal law. There is the civil marriage from the 01.09.
1927 First census, 14 million inhabitants
1928 Cancelation of Islam from the constitution - introduction of the Latin-Turkish alphabet
1929 Abolition of Persian and Arabian lessons in secondary schools
1930 Female franchise (municipal), from 1934 on also nationwide
1931 Kemalism: republicanly, nationalistically, populistly, etatisticly, laically and reformistly
1934 Introduction of family names
1935 Foundation of the university of Ankara
1936 Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits
1938 Annexation of Iskenderun and death of Atatürk on 10.11.
1941 Friendship treaty Germany-Turkey
1943 Twenty years of Turkey: 80% of all city children and 20% of all village children are visiting the school
1944 Discontinuation of relations with Germany
1945 Declaration of war towards Germany and Japan shortly before end of 2nd world war
1946 Two-party system in Turkey
1949 Turkey joins the Council of Europe
1950 The democratic party wins the election (Menderes becomes Prime Minister until 1960)
1952 Accession of Turkey to the NATO
1953 Transfer of Atatürk to the mausoleum in Ankara
1955 Cyprus crisis, anti-Greek riots in Istanbul
1959 Turkey becomes an associated member of the European trading partnership
1960 State of emergency in Turkey after massive protests. Officer's putsch on the 27th May, military government under general Gürsel from the 30th of May

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The second republic of Turkey

1961 Referendum on the new constitution (9th of July). Death sentences for the former Prime Minister Bayar, Menderes and two other ministers.
1963 Association agreements with the EC
1965 Election victory of the justice party under Demirel
1969 Renewed election victory of the justice party
1971 Enforced resignation of the government by the military guidance, state of emergency in 1971
1974 Turkish troops reach Cyprus
1975 Government of the national front under Demirel
1978 Excesses in Maras, numerous alevite victims
1980 Crisis year - civil-war-situation and numerous political murders, intervention of the military government under Evren
1981 Dissolution of all political parties, conscription of a consultative meeting

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The third republic of Turkey

1982 Constitutional referendum
1983 Özal founds the motherland party, he wins the election with 45% with his party
1984 Beginning of the PKK assaults in the east of Turkey
1985 Setting-up of other left-wing parties
1987 Turkey puts application for full membership of the EU, return permission of the "old" politician of the second republic (Ecevit, Demirel, Türkes, Erbakan)
1989 Reelection of Turgut Özal
1991 Abolition of the law against language ban (directed against Kurds)
new government under Demirel
1992 Atatürk dam is initiated, meetings of the Turkish world
1993 President Özal dies - Demirel the successor
Assault in a hotel in Sivas, 37 person are dead. The assault is directed against critical poets and artists.
1994 Abolition of the immunity of seven Kurdish representatives, free goods traffic between Turkey and Germany by an agreement
1995 Islamic Welfare Party wins 20% of the voices. Alliance with Tansu Ciller, with the party of the right way
1996 Concerning the custom union, the EU provides 350 millions (ECU)
1997 The security council decides a package of measures to control Islamic groups.
1998 Downfall of the government of Yilmaz in November
1999 Seizure of PKK leader Öcalan in Kenya and delivery to Turkey (since then on the prison island Imrali/Marmara Sea)
57th government under Bülent Ecevit (DSP) with coalition partners MHP and ANAP
Two disastrous earthquakes in the Marmara area and in west Turkey
Turkey becomes an EU-entry candidate (HE Helsinki)
2000 Ahmet Necdet Sezer becomes 10th president of Turkey
2001 Outbreak of a heavy government crisis, finance crisis and economic crisis, "Black Wednesday"
Constitutional court forbids the Islamic Fazilet party.
Their representatives are founding the Saadet party under Kutan on 20th of July, the reform wing is founding the AKP under Erdogan on 13th of August
2002 The conservative-islamic AKP arises with absolute majority of the seats in elections brought forward. The only opposition party in the parliament is the social-democratic CHP.
58th government under Abdullah Gül receives the trust of the parliament.
2003 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th reform packages
Parliament rejects a government bill on stationing and transit rights for US troops against Iraq unexpectedly. Turkey grants overflight rights on March, 20th.
2004 Historical state visit of the Syrian president Assad
Official visit of the German Federal Chancellor Schröder in Turkey
Turkish parliament dismisses comprehensive criminal law reform
The European council decides to take up the EU negotiations of accession on October, 3rd

(Source: different historical atlases, under it also the DTV atlas on history)

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